Act No. 243

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Upang basahin ang artikulong ito sa Ingles, tingnan ito.

Ang Act No. 243 ang batas na nagtakda sa paggamit sa Luneta sa Maynila para pagtayuan ng monumento ni Jose Rizal. Ipinasa ito noong ika-18 ng Setyembre, 1901.

Act No. 243

AN ACT granting the right to use public land upon the Luneta in the city of Manila upon which to erect a statue to Jose Rizal, from a fund to be raised by public subscriptions, and prescribing as a condition the method by which such subscription shall be collected and disbursed.

By authority of the President of the United States, be it enacted by the United States Philippine Commission, that:

Whereas, It has been proposed that a monument shall be erected to Jose Rizal, the Philippine patriot writer and poet, upon the Luneta in the city of Manila, and that the expense of the construction and erection of such monument shall be defrayed from a fund raised by public subscription, and

Whereas, it is necessary to the execution of this proposal that there should be a grant by constituted authority of the right to erect the monument upon the public land known as the Luneta.

Now therefore,

Section 1

The Municipal Board of the city of Manila, with the concurrence of the Advisory Board, is hereby authorized to grant permission to the committee hereafter constituted to erect the monument above mentioned upon any place upon the Luneta which may be agreed upon by the Municipal Board, the Advisory Board and the committee hereafter constituted, with the approval of the Civil Governor, on condition that the committee in charge of raising the fund and constructing the monument, and the method of raising subscriptions and disbursing the funds, shall be as hereafter provided.

Section 2

The committee for raising the funds by subscription for causing the erection of the monument and the expenditure of the funds shall be Pascual Poblete, Paciano Rizal, Juan Tuason, Teodoro R. Yangco, Mariano Limjap, Maximino Paterno, Ramon Genato, Tomas G. del Rosario, Dr. Ariston Bautista.

Section 3

The committee shall elect a chairman and a secretary and shall certify its action in this respect to the Insular Auditor and to the Insular Treasurer. Vacancies in the committee occurring by resignation or death shall be filled by the committee, with the approval of the Civil Governor.

Section 4

Subscriptions shall be collected by the committee or by agents regularly appointed by the committee, whose authority to collect subscriptions shall be evidenced by the possession of receipt-books to be prepared and issued by the Insular Treasury to the persons so authorized. It shall be the duty of the person so authorized to give a receipt to the subscriber for the amount collected, and to deposit the money collected with the Insular Treasurer at the Intendencia Building upon the day following the collection, where the collection shall be made in Manila, and as soon as practicable when collections are made outside of Manila. The Insular Treasurer shall issue a special receipt for each deposit so made, which receipt shall be invalid without the countersignature of the Insular Auditor. The Insular Auditor shall keep an account of the money thus deposited in the Treasury. The collector shall furnish to the Treasurer a list of the contributors, which list shall be made public, through the press or otherwise, at the close of each week.

Section 5

The funds thus collected shall be expended by the committee in any way which will contribute to the object of the subscription, to-witness the erection of a suitable monument, and this may include the regular payment of collection agents upon a percentage or per diem basis, as may seem wise to the committee. The members of the committee shall serve without compensation. The committee shall have power to offer prizes for designs for a suitable monument and to employ competent artists and sculptors to select the most appropriate design. The committee shall have charge of any ceremonies attending the laying of the corner-stone of the monument or its unveiling, subject to the approval of the Civil Governor.

Section 6

The funds collected in the Insular Treasury, a report of which shall be made monthly by the joint report of the Insular Treasurer and Auditor to the committee, shall be disbursed upon order of the committee, evidenced by warrant of the president, countersigned by the secretary of the committee, and accompanied by an itemized statement of the purposes for which the money was disbursed. The accounts shall be audited by the Insular Auditor quarterly and a public statement made by the Auditor of the result of his auditing. Should any surplus fund remain after the payment of all the expenses of the erection of the monument, including the payment of the sculptor and incidental expenses, the committee shall have power to devote the surplus to any charitable, educational or other public purpose which it may deem wise and proper.

Section 7

The public good requiring the speedy enactment of this bill, the passage of the same is hereby expedited in accordance with section 2 of "An Act Prescribing the Order of Procedure by the Commission in the Enactment of Laws," passed September 26, 1900.

Section 8

This act shall take effect on its passage. Enacted, September 28, 1901.

Bantayog ni Rizal

Ang bantayog na gawa sa tanso at batumbesi ay isa sa mga pinakatanyag na muhong lilok sa bansa. Halos protokol para sa mga nabibisitang dignitaryo na maglagay ng isang korona o wreath sa bantayog. Hindi lamang rebulto ni Rizal ang matatagpuan sa bantayog, kundi pati na rin ang kanyang bangkay

Noong Setyembre 28, 1901, inaprubahan ng Amerikanong Philippine Commission ang Act No. 243, na magtatayo ng bantayog sa Luneta para gunitain ang memorya ni José Rizal, Pilipinong bayani, manunulat, at makata. Gumawa ang komite na nabuo ng akto ng pandaigdigang kumpetisyon ng disenyo mula 1905 hanggang 1907 at inimbita ang mga iskultor mula sa Europa at Estados Unidos para magsumite ng mga entrada na may tantyang halaga ng ₱100,000 gamit ang mga lokal na materyales.

Nanalo si Carlos Nicoli ng Carrara, Italya para sa kanyang pinaliit na modelong eskayola na pinamagatang “Al Martir de Bagumbayan” (Para sa Martir ng Bagumbayan) na dumaig sa ibang 40 tinanggap na entrada. Gayunpaman, ipinagkaloob ang kontrata sa ikalawang nanalo na si Richard Kissling, isang Suwisong iskultor, para sa kanyang “Motto Stella” (Gumagabay na Bituin). Paglipas ng higit sa labindalawang taon pagkatapos ng kanyang pag-apruba, sa wakas ipinakita ang dambana noong Disyembre 30, 1913 noong ika-17 anibersaryo ng kamatayan ni Rizal. Nakakintal ang kanyang tula "Mi Ultimo Adios" ("Huling Paalam") sa plakang pang-alaala. Patuloy na binabantayan ang lugar ng mga seremonyal na sundalo ng Seguridad Pandagat at Konsorteng Pangkat ng Hukbong Kawal Pandagat ng Pilipinas.

Pambansang Sentro ng Gobyerno

Kinomisyon ni William Taft si Daniel Burnham, arkitekto at tagaplano ng lungsod, na gawin ang plano ng lungsod ng Maynila. Binalak na magkaroon ang mga gusali ng pamahalaan ng mga neoklasikong edipisyo at mga Greko-Romanong haligi. Pinili ni Burnham ang Luneta bilang lokasyon ng bagong sentro ng pamahalaan. Magiging sentro dapat nito ang isang malaking gusaling Kapitolyo, na binalak na maging Pilipinong beryson ng Kapitolyo sa Washington. Binalak na palibutan ito ng mga ibang gusali ng pamahalaan, ngunit dalawa lamang ng mga gusaling ito ang itinayo sa Agrifina Circle, na humaharap sa isa't isa. Ang mga ito ay ang Kagawaran ng Pagsasaka (ang Pambansang Museo ng Antropolohiya ngayon) at ang Kagawaran ng Pananalapi (ang Kagawaran ng Turismo ngayon at magiging Pambansang Museo ng Kasaysayan ng Kalikasan). Nakumpleto ang dalawang gusali bago ang Ikalawang Digmaang Pandaigdig.

Binalak din ang liwasan na maging Pilipinong bersyon ng The Mall sa Washington, D.C., kasabay ng planadong pagtayo ng mga tangapan ng pamahalaan.

Pambansang Liwasang Luneta

Noong Agosto 1954, binuo ni Pangulong Ramon Magsaysay ang Pambansang Komisyong Sentenaryo ni Jose Rizal o Jose Rizal National Centennial Commission (JRNCC) para ayusin at pangasiwaan ang pagdiriwang para sa sentenaryo ng kapanganakan ni José Rizal. Kasama sa mga plano nito ang pagtatayo ng maringal na bantayog ni José Rizal at Rizal Memorial Cultural Center na magkakaroon ng pambansang teatro, pambansang museo, at pambansang silid-aklatan sa Luneta. Idineklara ang lugar bilang pambansang liwasan noong Disyembre 19, 1955 sa bisa ng Proclamation No. 234 na pinirmahan ni Pangulong Magsaysay. Sumasaklaw ang Pambansang Liwasang Luneta ng halos 16.24 ektarya (40.1 acre) na sumasakop ng lugar na nakapalibot sa Bantayog ni Rizal. Pinangasiwaan ng Komisyon ng mga Liwasan at Kahayupan o Commission of Parks and Wildlife (na kilala ngayon bilang Kawanihan ng Pangangasiwa ng Biodiversidad o Biodiversity Management Bureau) ang pook noong pagtatatag nito bilang protektadong lugar.

Noong 1957, nagpalabas sa Pangulong Carlos P. Garcia ng Proclamation No. 470 na naglipat ng pangangasiwa ng pambansang liwasan sa Pambansang Komisyong Sentenaryo ni Jose Rizal. Noong 1961, sa pagdiriwang ng sentenaryo ng kapanganakan ni Rizal, inagurahan ang Pambansang Aklatan sa liwasan. Ipinasa ang pamamahala nito sa Komite para sa Paglilinang mga Pambansang Liwasan, isang nakalakip na ahensiya ng Kagawaran ng Turismo, na ibinuo noong 1963 ni Pangulong Diosdado Macapagal. Noong 1967, ibinago ang pangalan ng Pambansang Liwasang Luneta. Naging Liwasang Rizal ito noong pagkalagda ng Proclamation No. 299 ni Pangulong Ferdinand Marcos.

Mga Sanggunian

  • Act No. 243 s 1901 [1] accessed May 28, 2021
  • Historical Context and Legal Basis of Rizal Day and Other Memorials in honor of Jose Rizal [2] accessed May 28, 2021

Pagkilala

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